Specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible, Java computer programming languagethat is concurrent, class-based and object-oriented was developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems. It is released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems’ Java platform. It allows application developers to ‘write once, run anywhere’ (WORA), meaning that code that runs on one platform does not need to be recompiled to run on another.

Typically compiled to bytecode, Java applications can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) irrespective of computer architecture. Though the language derives much of its syntax from C and C++, it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them.

Initially named as Oak after an oak tree that stood outside Gosling’s office, the language was later renamed as ‘Green’ followed by ‘Java’ derived from Java coffee the reason behind it consumption in large quantities by its creators.

 Five primary goals in the creation of the Java language is to keep it

  1. simple, object-oriented and familiar

  2. robust and secure

  3. architecture-neutral and portable

  4. high performance

  5. interpreted, threaded, and dynamic

Java platform

Due to Java’s portability, the computer programs written in this language must run similarly on any hardware/operating-system platform, which is achieved by compiling the Java language code to an intermediate representation called Java bytecode, instead of directly to platform-specific machine code.

Java bytecode instructions are analogous to machine code, but they are intended to be interpreted by a virtual machine (VM) written specifically for the host hardware. End-users commonly use a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) installed on their own machine for standalone Java applications, or in a Web browser for Java applets.

Standardized libraries provide a generic way to access host-specific features such as graphics, threading, and networking.

A major benefit of using bytecode is porting. However, the overhead of interpretation means that interpreted programs almost always run more slowly than programs compiled to native executables would. Just-in-Time (JIT) compilers were introduced from an early stage that compile bytecodes to machine code during runtime.

Various Java Editions

Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE)

Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) is the industry standard for enterprise Java computing. With new features that enhance HTML5 support, increase developer productivity, and further improves how enterprise demands can be met, Java EE 7 enables developers to write less boilerplate code, have better support for the latest Web applications and frameworks, and gain access to enhanced scalability and richer, simpler functionality.

 Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE)

Java SE is designed to enable you to develop secure, portable, high-performance applications for the widest range of computing platforms possible. By making applications available across heterogeneous environments, businesses can boost end-user productivity, communication, and collaboration—and dramatically reduce the cost of ownership of both enterprise and consumer applications.

 Java Embedded

When you want more-more selection, protection, and power—Java is the choice. Oracle offers a wide range of solutions, from servers to embedded devices, for resource-constrained devices and desktop-class systems. These solutions provide real-time, high-performance capabilities that allow you to securely access resources while protecting your data, so you can do more with your devices.

 Java for Mobile Devices

Java Platform, Micro Edition (Java ME) is used by a vast number of Java mobile phone developers, carriers, and OEMs to create feature phone products around the globe. Oracle is the leader in providing mobile phone technology found on more than three billion devices and counting.

Oracle Java Cloud Service

Oracle Java Cloud Service provides an enterprise-grade platform to develop and deploy business applications in the cloud. It enables you to maximize productivity with instant access to cloud environments that support any standard Java EE application, complete with integrated security and database access—all powered by Oracle WebLogic Server.

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